Southern Europe braces for climate change-fuelled summer of drought

Southern Europe braces for climate change-fuelled summer of drought

Southern Europe is preparing for a summer of intense drought, with certain regions already experiencing water shortages and farmers anticipating their worst harvests in decades. The effects of climate change, leading to hotter and drier conditions, have depleted groundwater reserves and left soils parched in Spain, southern France, and Italy. This situation poses a threat to hydropower production due to low river and reservoir levels. Scientists warn that Europe is on track to face another grueling summer, following the record-breaking heatwaves and droughts of the previous year, which were declared the worst in at least 500 years by European Union researchers. Currently, Spain is the most severely affected country, and the situation is expected to worsen as the summer progresses.

The Severity of the Drought

Jorge Olcina, a professor of geographic analysis at the University of Alicante in Spain, states that the drought situation will deteriorate further in the coming summer months. Unfortunately, rainfall alone is unlikely to resolve the underlying drought issue at this point in the year. The only hope lies in sporadic and localized storms, which are insufficient to alleviate the rainfall deficit. Acknowledging the magnitude of the crisis, Spain’s Agriculture Minister Luis Planas has requested emergency assistance from the European Union, emphasizing that national funds alone cannot adequately address the consequences of this drought.

Climate Change Trends

Southern Europe is not the only region grappling with severe water shortages this year. The Horn of Africa is currently enduring its worst drought in decades, while Argentina is facing a historic drought that has significantly impacted soy and corn crops. The increase in frequency and intensity of droughts in the Mediterranean region aligns with climate change predictions for the area. The average temperature in the region has risen by 1.5 degrees Celsius over the past 150 years, and these changes are projected to continue exacerbating drought conditions. Hayley Fowler, a professor of Climate Change Impacts at Newcastle University, confirms that the current situation aligns with long-standing climate change forecasts.

Lagging Preparedness

Despite the forecasts and warnings, many farming regions have been slow to adopt water-saving measures such as precision irrigation or switch to more drought-resistant crops like sunflowers. Governments and companies have been sluggish in their response, with some still reluctant to change consumption patterns and relying on hypothetical technologies to solve the water crisis. France, for example, is emerging from its driest winter since 1959, with “crisis” alerts already activated in four departmental prefects, restricting non-priority water withdrawals, including those for agriculture. Similarly, Portugal is facing an early onset of drought, affecting 90% of the mainland and causing severe drought conditions in one-fifth of the country, an area nearly five times larger than the previous year.

Impacts on Agriculture and Harvests

In Spain, the lack of rainfall through April, with less than half of the average rainfall received, has resulted in thousands of people relying on truck deliveries for drinking water. Regions such as Catalonia have implemented water restrictions, and some farmers have reported crop losses as high as 80%. Cereals and oilseeds are among the most affected crops. According to Pekka Pesonen, the head of the European farming group Copa-Cogeca, this year’s harvest losses in Spain are the worst in decades, surpassing the severity of the previous year’s situation. Spain plays a crucial role in the European Union’s production of olives and fruits, accounting for half and one-third of the respective totals.

Spain has allocated over 2 billion euros ($2.20 billion) in emergency response funding, as its reservoirs are currently at an average of 50% capacity. The country is awaiting a response.

Emergency Response and Water Management

Spain has allocated over 2 billion euros ($2.20 billion) in emergency response funding as its reservoirs are currently at an average of 50% capacity. The country is awaiting a response from the European Union for additional financial assistance to tackle the drought crisis. The funds would be used to support farmers, mitigate the impact on the agricultural sector, and invest in water management infrastructure.

Efforts are being made to enhance water management practices and promote sustainable solutions. These include promoting water-saving technologies such as precision irrigation systems, implementing stricter regulations on water usage, and encouraging the adoption of drought-resistant crops. However, the magnitude of the drought calls for more comprehensive and coordinated measures across Southern Europe to address the water scarcity issue effectively.

Environmental and Economic Consequences

The drought and extreme heat in Southern Europe have wide-ranging environmental and economic consequences. The parched conditions increase the risk of wildfires, posing a threat to both natural ecosystems and human settlements. Forest fires have already been reported in parts of Spain and Greece, fueled by the dry vegetation and strong winds.

Furthermore, the agricultural sector, a vital part of Southern Europe’s economy, is facing significant losses. The reduced harvests not only impact farmers but also have a ripple effect on related industries, such as food processing and exports. The scarcity of water resources also affects hydropower production, leading to potential energy shortages and increased reliance on imported energy sources.

Need for Long-Term Adaptation Strategies

The recurring droughts and their devastating impacts highlight the urgent need for long-term adaptation strategies to mitigate the effects of climate change. It is crucial for governments and stakeholders to prioritize sustainable water management practices, invest in resilient infrastructure, and encourage the adoption of climate-smart agricultural techniques. This includes diversifying crop choices, implementing efficient irrigation methods, and promoting soil conservation measures to enhance water retention.

International cooperation and knowledge-sharing are also key to finding innovative solutions and strategies. Collaborative efforts between countries facing similar challenges can lead to more effective water management policies, early warning systems, and contingency plans to address future droughts.


Southern Europe is bracing for a summer of intense drought, with severe water shortages and anticipated losses in agricultural harvests. The situation is exacerbated by climate change, which has led to hotter and drier conditions in the region. The lack of rainfall and depleted water reserves call for urgent action to mitigate the impact on farmers, prevent wildfires, and ensure sustainable water management.

Addressing the drought crisis requires a combination of emergency response measures, long-term adaptation strategies, and international collaboration. It is essential for governments, communities, and stakeholders to work together to implement sustainable solutions, promote water-saving technologies, and develop resilient agricultural practices. By taking proactive steps to address the current challenges and plan for the future, Southern Europe can better prepare itself for the increasing risks posed by climate change.